People’s Party (PP)

People’s Party (PP, can also be translated as ‘Popular Party’). Spain’s currently ruling party is a centre-right catch-all party. The PP’s core came from the People’s Alliance, a party founded in 1976 by reformist Francoists which advocated a gradualist transition to democracy. The party was intended to become a mainstream conservative party, but the tinge […]

Slovenian National Party (SNS)

Slovenian National Party (SNS).  The SNS is Slovenia’s far-right and populist party. Like other far-right parties in former Communist Europe the party’s ideology is an odd combination of nationalism combined with sympathy for the former Yugoslavia (known in the Balkans as ‘Yugonostalgia’). The party’s leader, Zmago Jelincic Plemeniti served as an informant for the Yugoslav […]

Romania – EU Parliamentary Elections

Political Background Romania joined the EU in 2007, along with Bulgaria. It had initially been slated to join in 2004, but its admission was delayed due to doubts about the integrity of its political and economic system. Communist Romania was governed by the leadership of Nicolae Ceausescu. Ceausescu ran a particularly repressive regime with one […]

Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA)

Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). Formerly the dominant party in the Netherlands, recent years have been tough on the CDA. The CDA finds its origins in three parties which dominated the Dutch political system until their formal merger in 1980. These three parties, the Catholic People’s Party (KVP), and the Protestant Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) and Christian […]

Labour Party (PvdA)

Labour Party (PvdA – a literal translation of the party’s name would ‘Party of the Labour’). The Labour Party is the largest centre-left party in the Netherlands and the country’s primary social democratic party. The party was founded in 1946 from a merger of the pre-war Social Democratic Worker’s Party, the left-liberal Free-Thinking Democratic League, […]

People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD)

People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD). The VVD has historically been identified as the Netherlands’ largest liberal party. Yet, in reality, it might be more accurate to describe the VVD as the representative of the secular middle classes. The VVD was the party of the ‘liberal pillar’, which officially rejected pillarisation but which was […]

Democrats ‘66 (D66)

Democrats ‘66 (D66). D66 emerged in, as its name suggests, 1966, as the first genuine challenge to the Dutch party system. The party emerged from a group of young intellectuals who opposed pillarisation. D66 believed in political and electoral reform to end pillarisation. The party desired an American style Presidential system with First Past the […]

ChristianUnion (CU) & Political Reformed Party (SGP)

ChristianUnion (CU) & Political Reformed Party (SGP). This is a joint list of two Christian Orthodox parties. The parties are elements of the infamous Protestant Dutch disposition towards splintered churches. Some of the more Orthodox Protestants disagreed with the ARP and CHU due to theological and ideological differences and hence formed their own parties. Two […]

The Netherlands – EU Parliamentary Elections

Political Background The Netherlands has been part of the EU and the Euro since their inception. The Netherlands has possibly the most consensual political system in the entire EU, due to the historical legacy of sharp divisions on religious lines. The Dutch have a saying: “One Dutchman is a theologian; two Dutchmen are a Church; […]