Latvia – EU Parliamentary Elections

Political Background Latvia joined the EU as part of the major ten country expansion of 2004. It is the most recent country to join the Euro, joining on the 1st of January 2014, despite the Eurozone crisis. Like its Baltic neighbours, Estonia and Lithuania, Latvia enjoyed a short period of independence from the Russian Empire […]

Five Star Movement

Five Star Movement (M5S). The Five Star Movement is one of Italy’s newest parties (though members deny that it is a party, insisting that it is a ‘movement’), and also one of its most notable. Its result in the 2013 election received international attention. The M5S is the brainchild of Beppe Grillo, a famous comedian […]

Forza Italia

Forza Italia (lit. ‘Go Italy’), at the time of the last election People of Freedom. Forza Italia is the personal party of Silvio Berlusconi, and technically the second party to bear the Forza Italia name. The original Forza Italia was launched in December 1993, winning the general election in March 1993. The party was a […]

Fianna Fail, the Republican Party

Fianna Fail, the Republican Party (lit. ‘Soldiers of Destiny/Warriors of Fal’ – a romantic name for Ireland, like ‘Albion’ for England). For seventy-nine years FF was the unmatched dominant party of Ireland. One of the most successful electoral machines in the world, its worst result between the establishment of its dominance in 1932 and its […]

Alternative for Germany (AfD)

Alternative for Germany (AfD). Founded in 2013 by a group of academics the party’s de facto leader is Bernd Lucke, a political economist at the University of Hamburg. The AfD is a broadly right-leaning, softly Eurosceptic party which is principally opposed to the Euro, and to Eurozone bailouts.  In addition to opposition to the Euro the party desires […]

Independent Greeks (ANEL)

Independent Greeks (ANEL). When New Democracy was in opposition it often spent some time using a small amount of nationalistic, anti-austerity rhetoric though its official stance was always support in practice. Nonetheless, ND’s entry into government created a split from its anti-austerity right. The party’s leader and founder, Panos Kammenos, was ejected from ND after […]